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Science Connections: Research Citation Helps

9th- 10th Grade Science Research Project

Research Process General Guide

Research Process: The Steps

1.  Choose a Topic 

From the Teacher’s Topic Bank choose a topic that interests you.  If you are interested in the topic, the research will be more rewarding in that you will be finding out answers to your own questions

2.  PreSearch

    Read (Print or Online)  about your topic in a general or specific reference for background information.  Find useful keywords during your research for later use    

Tools : General Online Encyclopedias (Britannica, World Book Online), SIRS Discoverer, Wikipedia

3.  Focus the Topic

State your Topic as a question that you intend to answer in your project

4.  Find Sources 

Identify the kinds of sources you will need to complete your research

Tools --> Start with Broad resources and work toward more specific resources for example:

  • General Online Encyclopedia —> World Book Online
  • Specific Research Database —> Science in Context
  • Vetted/Evaluated Websites —> Through Destiny WebSearch
  • General Search Engine using Key words — These web sites must be evaluated

Suggestion - Use Google Scholar (https://scholar.google.com.hk/

NOTE:  If you are doing a search using Web Sites that are not vetted (evaluated) you must evaluate them!

To Evaluate your Sources — Full description can be found at (http://lib.nmsu.edu/instruction/evalcrit.html

  1. Authority - Is there an author, Is the author qualified, who is the sponsor, is the sponsor reputable, is there a link to information about the author or sponsor, if the page is not signed, is there way to determine its origin.  
  2.  Accuracy - Is the information reliable and error free, is there an editor or someone who verifies/check the information
  3.  Objectivity - Does the information show a minimum of bias, is the page designed to sway opinion, is there any advertising on the page
  4. Currency - Is the page dated - if so when was the last update, how current are the links
  5. Coverage - What topics are covered, what does this site offers that is not found elsewhere, does the information on the site have intrinsic worth, how much in depth is the material

5.  Record your Sources

Use MLA or APA citations - See Destiny Home Page for Citation Links.  The Long Island Univ APA or MLA Citation Guide are good color coded citation guides to use.

Before taking your first note or highlighting your first sentence, record your sources. Keep a working bibliography as you go along. You can always disregard a title that you end up not using.

6.  Outline and Take Notes

Take Notes in whatever way your teacher requires - (Consider using NoodleTools - See Mr. Boyer for help.)   As you take notes you may develop more questions that are important to investigate.  Continue to circle back to your main idea to see if you are finding answers to your question in the notes you are taking.

7.  Create/Write the Project - Per Teacher instructions

8.  Edit/Rewrite….. - Per Teacher instructions 

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Information to create this guide was gleaned from the following 2 sites.  

A good Start to Finish LibGuide for the Research Process can be found at the Pulask Technical College LibGuide site (http://libguides.pulaskitech.edu/content.php?pid=348781&sid=2853164)

Source Evaluation Tools

The following are good tools for evaluating online and print sources

  • CARRDSS
  • PAARC
  • Website Evaluation Tool

Citation Helps

The Destiny Home Page has a great listing of Citation Helps, but the following links are real easy to follow. REMEMBER all of our Research Database provide citations for the articles that you can copy to include with your research.  See your Librarian for assistance if you need help