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Historical Perspective of "To Kill a Mockingbird": Reconstruction

8th Grade Human Rights Novel Study. Getting a historical perspective.


What were some of the key events that changed the rights (positive & negative) for minorities during the Reconstruction era? Concentrate your timeline on those events.

US History in Context

The period of 1865 to 1918 runs from the end of the Civil War until the end of World War I. During the first ten years of this period, the Constitution was substantially amended and Congress enacted many federal civil rights laws. However, the courts proved hostile to most of these laws and to the expansion of federal power, striking down the laws and reading the constitutional amendments narrowly. By 1900, African Americans, Chinese, Japanese, Indians, and women in the United States had few civil rights. Violence by the white majority against African Americans increased as Lynching.....


"Civil Rights History 2: 1865-1918." Civil Rights in the United States, edited by Waldo E. Martin, Jr. and Patricia Sullivan, Macmillan Reference USA, 2000. U.S. History in Context, Accessed 21 Mar. 2018.

World Book

Results of the war


The tragic costs. According to most accounts, about 620,000 soldiers died during the Civil War. This figure is almost as many as the combined American dead of all other wars from the American Revolution (1775-1783) through the Iraq War (2003-2011). The Union lost about 360,000 troops, and the Confederacy about 260,000. Disease caused more than half the deaths. About a third of all Southern soldiers died in the war, compared with about a sixth of all Northern soldiers.

Guelzo, Allen C. "Civil War, American." World Book Student, World Book, 2018, Accessed 22 Mar. 2018.

Civil War

The war aims of both sides were simple. At the beginning the North fought only to preserve the Union. The South fought to win recognition as an independent nation. After President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1862, the long-troublesome slavery problem took on vast importance. A Northern victory would mean ultimate freedom for slaves; a Southern victory would insure the protection of slavery in all Confederate states.....

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